造林密度对欧美杨三品种在东北地区生长及材性的影响
Effect of planting density on 3 cultivars of Populus×euramericana growth and wood properties
投稿时间:2019-09-27  修订日期:2020-05-23
DOI:
中文关键词:  造林密度  欧美杨品种  保存率  胸径  木材性质
英文关键词:planting density  Populus×euramericana cultivars  preservation rate  DBH  wood properties
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题"欧美杨工业资源材高效培育技术研究"(2016YFD0600401);国家“十二五”科技支撑计划课题“阔叶树速生丰产林定向培育技术研究”(2015BAD09B02)
作者单位E-mail
刘宁 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所 372150698@qq.com 
丁昌俊 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所  
李波 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所  
丁密 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所  
苏晓华 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所  
黄秦军 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所 huangqj@caf.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】为了探讨我国欧美杨速生丰产林良种选育及栽培环节存在的关键共性技术问题,在我国东北地区大凌河流域平原开展栽植密度对欧美杨品种的影响试验,为欧美杨纸浆材人工林优良品种的早期选育及推广栽培提供一定的理论依据。【方法】试验材料为京2杨、渤丰1号杨和渤丰3号杨三个欧美杨品种,设计2m×3m、2m×4m、2m×5m和2m×6m四种造林密度。测量第2至8年的胸径,统计第1至8年的保存率,测定第1至8年的木材物理性质、第2、4、6、8年的木材解剖性质,测定总体的木材化学成分。整理并绘制保存率连年变化图,利用双因素方差分析逐年评价品种、造林密度以及品种与造林密度的交互作用对欧美杨胸径的效应,并对各性状进行多重比较。【结果】品种和造林密度对胸径生长均有极显著的影响(p<0.01);造林密度与品种的互作效应在第1至6年均是显著的(p<0.05),第7、8年则没有出现显著性(p<0.05)的互作效应。各造林密度中京2杨的保存率呈逐年较大幅度下降的形式,在第8年其各密度胸径和保存率最差;保存率最高的是2m×6m造林密度中的渤丰1号杨;胸径最大的是2m×6m造林密度中的渤丰3号杨。较大造林密度(2m×3m和2m×4m)会在生长初期使欧美杨的保存率较大幅度下降,而较小的造林密度(2m×3m和2m×4m)保存率下降平缓。对木材性质进行的多重比较结果表明,造林密度对木材性质几乎没有显著性的影响。木材的纤维长宽比、总木素含量随造林密度的增加而增大;而较小的造林密度会增加木材的纤丝角度、木纤维组织比量、纤维素含量、综纤维素含量。【结论】三个欧美杨品种的适应性存在差异,渤丰1号杨和渤丰3号杨优于京2杨。较大的造林密度对三品种的保存率、胸径、木材性质均起到了抑制作用;而较小的造林密度下欧美杨的保存率高。随林龄的增长,欧美杨的木材基本密度、纤维长、纤维长宽比显著性增大,而木材的微纤丝角、木纤维组织比量显著减小,纤维宽的变异较小。造林密度与品种的互作效应对胸径的影响随林龄的增长而减弱。在营造纸浆材欧美杨人工林时,初植密度最少不能小于2m×6m,且应当做到适地适树以优化生产。试验中欧美杨的木材性质均适宜营造纸浆林,高保存率的渤丰1号杨适合纸浆材人工林的营造,而渤丰3号杨有发展大径材人工林的潜力。
英文摘要:
      [Objective] In order to discuss the key common technical problems in the selection and cultivation of the fast-growing and high-yielding Populus × euramericana forest in China, the test of the impact of planting density on the Populus × euramericana varieties was carried out in the Daling River Basin in Northeast China. The purpose is to provide a theoretical basis for the early selection and popularization of Populus × euramericana pulp plantations.[Method] The test materials were three Populus × euramericana varieties: "J2", "Bofeng 1" and "Bofeng 3 hao". Four planting densities of 2m × 3m, 2m × 4m, 2m × 5m and 2m × 6m are designed.The DBH of the 2nd to 8th year, the preservation rate of the 1st to 8th year, the physical properties of the 1st to 8th year, the anatomical properties of the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th year, and the chemical composition of the overall Populus×euramericana wood were measured and calculated.Collate and plot the change chart of preservation rate.The effects of cultivars, planting density and cultivars × planting density on DBH of Populus×euramericana were evaluated by two-factor variance analysis year by year, and multiple comparisons were made for each trait.[Result] Cultivars and planting density had significant effects on DBH growth (p < 0.01).Planting density × cultivars had significant effects on DBH growth from 1st to 6th years (p < 0.05), but there was no significant interaction effect from 7th to 8th years (p < 0.05).Among the planting densities, the preservation rate of “J2” decreased significantly year by year, and the DBH and preservation rate of each density were the worst in the 8th year.The highest preservation rate is “Bofeng 1” in the planting density of 2m *6m.The largest DBH is “Bofeng 3 hao ” in the planting density of 2m *6m.Larger planting densities (2m * 3m and 2m * 4m) will significantly reduce the preservation rate of Populus×euramericana in the early growth stage, while smaller planting densities (2m * 3m and 2m * 4m) will decrease slowly.Multiple comparisons of wood properties showed that planting density had little significant effect on wood properties.The ratio of fiber length to width and total lignin content of wood increased with the increase of planting density.The smaller planting density will increase the fibril angle, the ratio of wood fibre to tissue, the content of cellulose and the content of holocellulose. [Conclusion] The adaptability of the three Populus × euramericana varieties is different. "Bofeng 1" and "Bofeng 3 hao" are better than "J2". Larger afforestation density inhibited the preservation rate, breast diameter, and wood properties of the three varieties; while the lower afforestation density, Populus × euramericana had a higher preservation rate. With the increase of forest age, Populus × euramericana's wood basic density, fiber length, fiber length to width ratio significantly increased, while the wood microfibril angle, wood fiber tissue ratio decreased significantly, and the fiber width variation was small. The effect of the interaction of afforestation density and variety on DBH decreases with the age of the forest. When constructing the Pupulus × euramericana plantation of paper pulp, the initial planting density should not be less than 2m × 6m, and trees should be properly planted to optimize production. In the experiment, the wood properties of Populus × euramericana are suitable for the establishment of pulp forests. The high preservation rate of "Bofeng 1" is suitable for the establishment of pulp wood plantations, and "Bofeng 3 hao" has the potential to develop large-diameter wood plantations.
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