张敏,杨浩瑜,包立,汪泰,张乃明.氮、磷、钾配比施肥对辣木生长及叶片养分吸收的影响[J].林业科学研究,2019,32(5):114-120
氮、磷、钾配比施肥对辣木生长及叶片养分吸收的影响
Effects of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Ratio Fertilization on Growth and Leaf Nutrient Absorption of Moringa oleifera
投稿时间:2019-02-04  修订日期:2019-04-10
DOI:10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2019.05.015
中文关键词:  辣木  配比施肥  养分吸收  生长状况
英文关键词:Moringa oleifera  proportioning fertilization  nutrient absorption  growth
基金项目:云南省对外科技合作计划-院士专家工作站(2015IC022);云南省科技创新人才计划项目(2015HC018)
作者单位E-mail
张敏 云南农业大学资源与环境学院, 云南 昆明 650201
云南省土壤培肥与污染修复工程实验室, 云南 昆明 650201 
 
杨浩瑜 云南农业大学资源与环境学院, 云南 昆明 650201
云南省土壤培肥与污染修复工程实验室, 云南 昆明 650201 
 
包立 云南农业大学资源与环境学院, 云南 昆明 650201
云南省土壤培肥与污染修复工程实验室, 云南 昆明 650201 
 
汪泰 云南农业大学资源与环境学院, 云南 昆明 650201
云南省土壤培肥与污染修复工程实验室, 云南 昆明 650201 
 
张乃明 云南省土壤培肥与污染修复工程实验室, 云南 昆明 650201 zhangnaiming@sina.com 
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中文摘要:
      [目的]为明确辣木生长对养分的需求及叶片养分吸收状况。[方法]研究采取田间小区实验,设置N80、N80P20、N80K40、P20K40、N80P20K40、N60P20K60和不施肥对照7个处理,测定分析不同氮、磷、钾配比施肥对辣木生长及叶片养分吸收的影响。[结果]不同氮、磷、钾配比施肥处理下,辣木生长速度先快后缓慢,处理90 d后株高、冠幅和鲜叶生物量的最高值及地径的次高值均出现在N80中,N60P20K60的株高、地径及N80K40的鲜叶生物量仅次于N80处理;不同氮、磷、钾配比施肥均促进了辣木叶片中全氮、全磷含量的累积,但降低了全钾含量;除N80外,其它处理叶片叶绿素含量均低于CK,高氮处理的叶绿素含量均高于P20K40和N60P20K60,N80P20高于N80K40[结论]各元素对辣木生长影响大小为N > K > P,对叶片中叶绿素含量影响大小为N > P > K,叶片中营养元素含量大小为N > K > P。综合试验结果中辣木主要生长指标的生长及叶片养分吸收情况,配比施肥最优处理为N80,且该施肥处理主要适用于辣木幼龄及速生生长阶段。
英文摘要:
      [Objective] To determine the nutrient requirement and leaf nutrient uptake of Moringa oleifera.[Method] Field experiment was carried out, and seven treatments, i.e. N80, N80P20, N80K40, P20K40, N80P20K40, N60P20K60 and no fertilization (CK) were set up to analyze and confirm the effects of the different nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium ratio on growth and leaf nutrient absorption of M. oleifera.[Result] Under different ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash fertilizer treatments, M. oleifera grew quickly at the beginning and then grew slowly. The highest value of plant height, crown width and fresh leaf biomass and the second highest value of ground diameter appeared in N80. The plant height and ground diameter increment under N60P20K60 treatment, and fresh leaf biomass under N80K40 treatment were second only to N80 treatment. Different nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium ratio fertilization promoted the accumulation of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in M. oleifera leaves, but reduced the total potassium content. Except for N80, the chlorophyll content in leaves under other treatments were lower than that of the CK, and the chlorophyll content of high-nitrogen treatments were higher than that of P20K40 and N60P20K60, and the chlorophyll content under N80P20 treatment was higher than that under N80K40 treatment.[Conclusion] The impact of nutrient elements on the growth of M. oleifera follows the order of N>K>P, the impact on chlorophyll content in M. oleifera leaves follows the order of N > P > K, and the nutrient element content in M. oleifera leaves follows the order of N > K > P. According to the results of the main growth indicators of M. oleifera and the nutrient absorption of leaves, the optimal fertilization ratio is the combination of N80, and the fertilization treatment is suitable for M. oleifera in young and fast-growing stages.
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